Monday, 16 July 2012

My Preferred Body Com

My most preferred body composition method is the 'Bod Pod' method(air displacement). Even though it costs a lot of money, it is relatively easy and less complicated to use such as the "skinfolding" method. It is also very accurate. My last reason is that it can also calculate the body composition of specific age groups such as children and the elderly.

Body Composition Method Karan

I prefer using skinfold measurements because,

Skinfold measurements are widely utilized to assess body composition. It is a lot simpler than hydrostatic weighing and many of the other body composition techniques. After the original outlay for calipers, the daily tests costs are minimal.
Other considerations: some subjects may feel uncomfortable stripping down in front of the tester, therefore every effect should be made to make them feel comfortable. For legal reasons, it is wise to have another person present, and to have females testers for female subjects. The right side measurement is standard, though in some situations you may need to test someone on the left side. If so, you must record this and endeavor to always test on the same side for that person. Reasons for testing on the left side may include injuries, amputation, deformities, or other medical conditions.

Saturday, 14 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Method - Nur Nadiah

My most preferred body composition method is the 'Bod Pod' (air displacement). Although it is rather costly, it is the least troublesome and the most comfortable method as compared to the other methods such as 'skinfolding'. Furthermore, it is relatively accurate and very time-conserving. It is also well-suited for special populations such as the elderly and children. Hence, my most preferred method is the 'Bod Pod'.

Friday, 13 July 2012

Body Composition Method (Ronak)

I prefer the skin fold method to measure the body composition. It might not be as accurate and reliable as other measurement but it still has a region of error or reliability that can be ignored and still get a good measurement. For example, more accurate would give reading up to 5-6 decimal place but for normal people that accurate reading is not required. Plus, it is relatively cheap and can be done at home which is good for people who want to keep track of their body composition regularly so they do not have to go anywhere. Also, the tools necessary are only a measurement tape and a skin fold caliper which are also cheap and easily and readily available. Skin fold is a good and reliable technique

Body composition method [Gwendolyn]

My favorite method is the skin fold method. Though it is not as accurate as the other methods, it is cheap and can be easily done at home, and because of this it is best for people who wants to monitor their body composition regularly. The equipments needed are only a tape measure and a skin fold caliper, both of which is rather cheap and easy to get.

submission of elearning and Body composition homework

for those who have not been listening in class.

Please submit your work via email - if you have not been granted author rights by your class SW reps. in addition, the submit folder for elearning week is closed AFTER the elearning week in Term 2. So, please do not submit your work there. Please email me instead.

Thank you

Thursday, 12 July 2012

Favourite body composition test method [JingYi]

My preferred body composition test method would be the bod pod, as it is not only comfortable, but also accurate. It has an error range of 1-2%, which is around the same as the hydrostatic weighing. Even though this method might be rather expensive, it is the most comfortable and accurate method, thus I think it is worth its price.

Preferred body composition test method - Jun Hong

Favourite method to measure accurate body composition: Hydrostatic Weighing

It is the most accurate compared to Bod Pod, Skinfold measurements, Bioelectrical Impedence Analysis and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. It has a specific and accurate formula to calculate the amount of fats in our body, even though it can be quite uncomfortable. Other methods of measuring body composition are less reliable. The only factor that can directly affect the measurement is the amount of air in the lungs, which can be calculated.

Preferred body composition technique [Aaron]

My preferred choice of finding the ody composition technique would be MRI [Magnetic resonance imaging]. It's relatively straightforward and simplistic. You wouldn't need to bother much about what to do when and how. It don't have requirements that require your body to be in a certain fitness level.

Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Technique-Jaime Pang (306)

My preferred body composition test would be the skin fold test. Even though it is not as accurate as the other methods, it can be used to identify changes in body composition over time. Since this test only requires a skin fold calipers and a tape measure, the materials can be reused over and over again without a need to pay money every single time. This will benefit people who want to observe their body composition regularly.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method - Tan Jian Hui S3-02

My preferred choice of testing body composition would be Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This technique provides users with detailed information of where their body fats are distributed. It is non-invasive and painless, as the procedure for the test only requires the user to lie down and let the magnet and computer scan. Some people may think it is dangerous because of the scanning, however, this technique does not utilise ionising radiation that are used in X-rays, hence they are considered safe.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method - Norul

My preferred body composition test method is the whole-body air-displacement plethysmography, in which they measure body composition using an equipment called the 'BodPod'. This is because it has a high level of accuracy, with a general error range of 1-2% which is the same as hydrostatic weighing. However, compared to hydrostatic weighing, the BodPod does not require getting wet and this gives it an advantage of ease of use as well as faster testing time. With that said, the BodPod unit is very expensive ($30,000 - $40,000) and only few facilities have it. Some institutions offer tests for a fee.

Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Preferred Body composition technique -Yeo Jun Jie(s3-06)

My preferred body composition technique would be the Girth, Or Circumference measures.
Girths are circumference measures at standard anatomical sites around the body, measured with a tape measure. Girth measurements can be used in determining body size and composition, and to monitor changes in these parameters.

I chose this as this technique is relatively cheap, and it is very convenient to perform at home, which allows for proper tracking of the body. In addition, when performed with the skinfold measurments, a clearer picture of changes in muscle and fat compositions and distribution can be seen.

Monday, 9 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Clarabelle s306

Bod Pod
The Bod Pod is a new tool that relies on air displacement to determine body fat, says Bryant. There's no submersion; you don't get wet. But you have to get into the Bod Pod chamber, be very still, control your breath; all factors that can affect the results. Your hydration level before the test can also affect results. 
Price: $40 to $65 per test.
It's much easier and more convenient than underwater weighing and it is about as accurate and reliable as DEXA, and is much cheaper plus it is becoming more widely available. Though it may still need some refinement.

Sunday, 8 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Heo Yub S3-02

My preferred body composition test method is the MRI scan as it is painless and non-invasive for the user. This method estimates body fat percentage and determines the body composition through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), allowing for accurate analysis of body composition. Most importantly, this method of testing is not uncomfortable and does not require the user to hold their breath, which is needed for hydrostatic testing. However, this method is expensive.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — ZhiYongS3-02

My preferred choice of body composition testing wold be the hydrostatic underwater weighing method. It seems fun to me, but more importantly, it is also the most accurate compared to the rest of the methods.

Preferred Body composition test method - Catherine S3-02

My preferred body composition test method is the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as it is the simplest yet one of the most accurate method. This method estimates body fat percentage and determines the body composition and bone mineral density through X-rays scans of the body. The individual taking the test would have to lie under the X-ray machine and wait for the results. However, this method is expensive.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Tim Yap S3-02

Preferred Body Composition Test Method: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

What is it?

"Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), also called Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is a noninvasive, painless medical imaging technique used commonly in radiology. MRI provides detailed images of the body in any plane, and is used to visualize the structure and function of the body for the diagnosis and treatment of human conditions. Due to the detailed images that can be provided using this technique, it is possible to get accurate measurements of the composition of body tissue."

Why is it preferred?

Of all the composition test methods, this is the most accurate and the least strenuous on the person undergoing the test (unlike skin fold measurement, hydrostatic weighing, etc.) This technique does not use ionizing radiation (unlike CT scans, x-rays), so it is very safe and not harmful to the body. The only drawback is the high cost, but this is weighed out by the many advantages of this test method.

Preferred Body composition test method - Celine

My preferred choice for body composition test method is the skin fold measurement method, as it is quick and simple to perform, only needing a trained pincher, a caliper, a measuring tape and marker. Also, there is a fixed formula for finding out the percentage of fat in the body, so it is fairly accurate.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Jake Wee 302)

My preferred choice of body fat composition testing is the Classic Hydrostatic testing as it is the most accurate way of testing for the body fat composition. Though it is uncomfortable and expensive, it has the most accurate readings as compared to other methods.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Fatin S3-02

My preferred body composition test method would be the Bioelectrical impedance analysis because it is easy to use and cheap. On top of that, it is also more comfortable as compared to the underwater weighing although it is not as accurate.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Rayner Tan 302)

My favourite method of weight control is the vacuum therapy as it is
relatively comfortable compared to the water method. It’s also
interesting as it uses science on the cellular level, and it’s based
off from an old chinese method called “cupping”

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Calvin Heng 302)

My preferred method of the body composition test would be Bioelectrial Impedance Analysis. This method is more cost-efficient and will derive decent results. It works by transferring an electrical current through the patient's hand and foot. Muscular Bodies with a greater water composition would have less resistance to the current whereas bodies with more fat would have a greater resistance to the current.

Saturday, 7 July 2012

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement - Hong Kai Xuan (15) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring my body fat composition is by underwater weighing.

Underwater Weighing involves methods from the principle which states that when a body is submerged underwater, there will be buoyant counter force equal to weight which is displaced. It uses Archimedes principle of displacement. The higher the percentage of fat, the less displacement of water.

This is more accurate because if the guidelines are being carried out properly, it will have +/- 1.5% error. This method is considered the "gold standard" in percent body fat measurement. Repeat measures also mostly prove consistent, and can be used to chart progress. Hence, it is rather reliable.
However, it requires a lot of equipment and space, testing is time consuming and involved as well.

Friday, 6 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test - Teoh Yun (09) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring body fats is using body weight. It is easy for lazy people like me who finds it troublesome to go through all the unfamiliar methods, using a normal scale, this method can be used almost everywhere, and to improve reliability, weigh routinely in the mornings. It is also a very cheap and fast method.

Preferred method of body composition test - Teo Yi Lin (08) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring body fats is using the Bioelectric Impedance Analysis, also known as BIA.

The BIA scale estimates both fat-free body and body fat percentage at the same time using the strength of impedance along with the height and weight metrics based on the different water content and conductivity of fats and muscle.

Even though it is not as accurate as compared to hydrostatic weighing, it is comparatively cheaper and also easier to administer. This is also another cheaper method other than the skin fold caliper method.

Preferred method of body composition test — Benz Kew (10) S3-06

My preferred method would be the DXA Scan (Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry)

Advantages: It is the most accurate with minimal precision error
Disadvantages: It is expensive, less accurate for obese people and needs a doctor's prescription before running the scan.

Thursday, 5 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test — Idris(20) S3-08

My Preferred method is measuring my body fat composition is by Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000. This method is based on the principles of light absorbtion , reflectance, and near infrared spectroscopy.

It has an accuracy of ±4% is fairly inexpensive at about twenty to forty dollars.

- Safe
- Non-invasive
- Fast
- Convenient.

- Not one the most accurate technique

Wednesday, 4 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test—Lim Zhi Qi(03) S3-06

My preferred method of body composition test is the hydrostatic underwater weighing. I chose this because this is one the most accurate tests. However, this is very expensive and hard to access too. It also has blindspots like overestimating the body fat of an elderly having osteoporosis and underestimating of an athlete who has denser bones and muscles than non-athletes.

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement- Ng Kok Yin (04) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring my body fat composition will be Hydrostatic Weighing. Hydrostatic weighing, is the body fat measurement that requires being submerged in a specialized tank of water and measured with the mass per unit volume of a patient's body.

The procedure is based on Archimedes' principle, using the following three measurable values:
-The weight of the body outside the water
-The weight of the completely immersed body (a weight that may be negative if the body in question is less dense than water)
-The density of the water

If each test is performed correctly according to the recommended guidelines, there is a +/- 1.5% error. (Note: Accuracy depends on the client's ability to blow all the air out of their lungs both during a pre-test screening with a spirometer, and during the test itself. Since air makes the body float, inability to perform either of these maneuvers will result in miscalculation of the percent body fat.)

This method is currently considered the "gold standard" in percent body fat measurement
Repeat measures usually prove consistent, and can be used to chart progress

This method usually requires a lot of equipment and space
Testing is time consuming and involved
Requires in-depth knowledge to administer the tests and compute the calculations
Being submerged under water may be difficult and produce anxiety for some

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement- Sean Phua Aik Han (19) S3-06

The preferred method of calculating body fat composition in my opinion is hydrostatic weighing. It's aim is to derive the body fat composition from the density of the body in water. Equipment such as a hydrostatic stainless steel weighing tank, which requires a special underwater mounted chair and scale.

The person's weight out of water must be recorded, and then with minimal clothing on, sits on the seat in the weighing tank and expels all the air out of their lungs. The person is then completely submerged into the water tank and the underwater weight is recorded. This test must be re-conducted several times in order to determine the accuracy of the result.

Even though this test might be accurate for most people, there are still some disadvantages. One reason for this is that athletes tend to have denser bones and muscles compared to non-athletes. Adding on, the equipment needed for hydrostatic weighing is costly, and the tanks are usually located in universities or research institutions. Thus, making it hard to access for the general public.

Body Fat Composition Measurement – Oh Sher Li (S3-06)

My preferred method of measuring body fat composition is Hydrostatic Weighing. Hydrostatic weighing, or underwater weighing, is considered the "Gold Standard" of body fat measurement that requires being submerged in a specialized tank of water. 

It works mainly because bone and muscle are more dense than water, so a person with less fat will weigh more in the water and vice versa. The accuracy of the reading is contingent upon blowing all the air out of the lungs during pretest screening. The test takes about 20-30 minutes, costs around $100-$150, and is available at research labs, universities, or hospitals.

The advantage of this method is its accuracy, however it can be impractical, expensive, and difficult to repeat. This method produces a very accurate result, hence it is a lot more reliable than many other methods, if the user wishes to have a very clear idea of his/her body fat composition.

screen shots of students who have submitted e-learning week task

for students who have not submitted
1. e-learning week task (FITT) and/or
2. Body composition preference on the blog (term 2, last week)

please do so before this Friday - 6 Jul 2012.

You will be issued yellow forms to attend SS if you fail to finish!

Monday, 2 July 2012

Preferred Body composition measuring method [ Emily S3-08 ]

My preferred choice for measuring body composition is Underwater weighing or Hydrostatic Weighing . I chose this as it is the most accurate among all the methods and is relatively cheap .

Hydrostatic Weighing is based upon the Archimedes principle which states that when a body is submerged in water , there is a buoyant counter force equal to the weight of the water which is displaced .  As bones and muscles are more dense than water, a person with a lower percentage of fat will weigh more in the water and have a lower percent body fat. Conversely, fat floats. Therefore, a large amount of fat mass will make the body lighter in the water and have a higher percent body fat.

With Hydrostatic Weighing , there is only a chance of +/- 1.5% error . However , it depends on the client's ability to blow all air out of their lungs during the pretest and the actual test . This is important as having air in the body will enable the body to float but this test is trying find out how much the body floats due to the body fat and not the air inside the body . 

Hydrostatic Weighing produces fairly accurate results and thus can be used to chart progress .

Hydrostatic Weighing requires a lot of equipment as well as space . The test itself is time consuming and involved . Also , in-depth knowledge is required to administer the tests as well as to compute the calculations . Lastly , being submerged under water may prove to be difficult for some . 

Hydrostatic weighing will cost anywhere from $10-$75 due to the involved nature of the test.

Places to go
Available at research institutions and colleges or universities
Discounted pricing is usually available for students.

Source :

Body Composition - Koh Su En (04)

The method of measuring body composition that I have measured is by using Skinfold Measurements.


  • Easy to use
  • No need a lot of time
  • Cheap
  • Noninvasive
  • Widely available
  • Technical sources of error
  • Measure fats under the skin
  • Not the best for the obese and lean

Why is it my preferred choice?
It is relatively cheap and widely available. It is also more accurate than the Near Infrared Interactance (NIR).

With reference to:

Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing

Hydrostatic weighing, also known as Hydrodensitometry or underwater weighing, is a classic measure of body composition. Its the best way to measure body fat percentage as well

Equipment needed:
Hydrostatic stainless steel weighing tank, including underwater mounted chair and scale, weighted belt and nose clip. A more simple set up may include a chair and scale suspended from a diving board over a pool or hot tub.

The dry weight of the subject is first determined. The subject, in minimal clothing, then sits on a specialized seat, expels all the air from their lungs, and is lowered into the tank until all body parts are emerged. The person must remain motionless underwater while the underwater weight is recorded. This procedure is repeated several times to get a dependable underwater weight measure. 

How to measure:
Body density = Wa / (((Wa - Ww) / Dw) - (RV + 100cc)), where Wa = body weight in air (kg), Ww = body weight in water (kg), Dw = density of water, RV = residual lung volume, and 100cc is the correction for air trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. The body density (D) can be converted to percent bodyfat (%BF) using the Siri equation. For more accuracy residual lung volume (RV) should be physically measured, though there are calculations for RV estimation. One estimation of residual volume is one third of forced vital capacity (FVC)

Underwater weighing is the most widely used test of body density and in the past was the criterion measure for other indirect measures.

The equipment required to do underwater weighing is expensive. The tanks are mostly located at university or other research institutions, and there is generally not easy access for the general population.

Skinfold Measurements

Making accurate skinfold measurements is more than simply pinching the skin somewhere around a particular area and measuring the thickness. There are precise sites on which the measurements are to be taken. A well-trained technician can obtain accurate results, unlike most others who aren't trained and experienced to take accurate enough results. To take a skin-fold measurement, first determine the correct measurement site. Grab the skin with the thumb and forefinger about 0.5 inch from the measurement site following the natural fold of the skin. Lift the skin up from the muscle, apply the calipers and wait for 4 seconds before reading the calipers (Fat is compressible, so reading the scale before or after the 4-sec delay may affect the results) Readings are usually taken from: Triceps (Midpoint between top of shoulder and bottom of elbow) Chest (Midpoint between armpit and nipple) Abdominal (1inch left and 0.5inch down of belly button) Supriliac (Top of hipbone, in line with belly button) Thigh (Midpoint between knee and hip) Formulas to calculate: Females: Body Density = 1.0994921 - 0.0009929*sum + 0.0000023*sum^2 - 0.0001392*age (triceps, suprailiac, thigh skinfold measurements) Males: Body Density = 1.1093800 - 0.0008267*sum + 0.0000016*sum^2 - 0.0002574*age (chest, abdominal, thigh skinfold measurements) Using those measurements, we can estimate our body fats using two formulas: Siri Percent Fat = [(495 / Body Density) -450] * 100 Brozek Percent Fat = [(4.570 / Body Density) - 4.142] * 100 These are not accurate though, as it assumes that the density of fat-free mass to remain constant. So the actual fat percentage is slightly higher then the measured percentage in the lean, muscular type and vice versa for the obese type. Although we need training and experience, it isn’t very difficult to calculate and estimate our body fat. This also doesn’t require many equipment, except for the special skinfold measuring calipers. As long as we have those, we are able to roughly calculate our body fat anywhere and everywhere. It’s doesn’t cost a lot either. Source: Darius Low, S308

Methods of measuring body composition - Shamus

The method of measuring body composition that I prefer is Near Infrared Interactance (NIR).

This method of assessing body fat is based on the principles of light absorbtion, reflectance, and near infrared spectroscopy. To estimate body composition, a computerized spectrophotometer that has a scan and probe are used. The probe is placed onto a selected body site such as the biceps; it emitts an infrared light which passes through both fat and muscle and is reflected back to the probe. Subject data such as height, weight, sex, age, frame size and activity level are taken into consideration. Density measurements are obtained and incorporated into the manufacturer's prediction equations. A digital read out including percentage body fat and lean tissue are displayed.

This method is not the most accurate, but it is cost efficient and convenient. Futrex 5000 (an example of NIR) underestimated body fat by more than 4% in subjects greater than 30% fat and overestimated body fat by 4% in subjects less than 8% fat. 

Its advantages include safe, non-invasive, fast, and convenient. It is inexpensive, and only costs anywhere from 20 to 40 dollars. It is available at health clubs, weight loss centers, and medical practices offering weight loss programs. 

Source :

Sunday, 1 July 2012

Calculating Body Fat composition -Cherin (3-08)

Method: Measuring Skinfolds

It estimates the percentage of body fat by measuring skinfold thickness at specific locations on the body.  
They are generally taken at specific parts of the right side of the body.  It is done by pinching the skin at a particular area and pulling the fold  away from the underlying muscle so only the skin and fat tissue is being held. Special skinfold calipers are then used to measure the skinfold thickness in millimeters. It is taken twice and then averaged.

These are the main areas that are measured:
-Subscapula (Beneath the edge of the shoulder blade)
-Midaxilla (Midline of the side of the torso)
-Suprailiac (Just above the iliac crest of the hip bone)

There are many formulas used to calculate body fat, below is one of the simplest:

For Females:

Body Density = 1.0994921 - (0.0009929 x sum) + (0.0000023 x sum) - (0.0001392 x age)
"sum" refers to the sum of triceps, suprailiac and thigh skinfold measurements.

For Males:

Body Density = 1.1093800 - (0.0008267 x sum) +( 0.0000016 x sum ) -( 0.0002574 x age)
"sum" refers to the sum of pectoral, abdominal and thigh skinfold measurements.

Saturday, 30 June 2012

Body Composition - Casandra Ong

The Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis:

The bioelectric impedance device measures the resistance of the body tissues, through the flow of a small electrical signal. The person being measured should not be in contact with any insulators of electricity, with legs aparts and arms away from the body. Some BI machines require a pair of electrodes, that are worn on the hands and wrists, and another pair worn on ankles and foot. Other BI machines only require the person to stand on two foot plates.

As BI measures the resistance of the body tissues, the proportion of body fat can be calculated as the current flows more easily through the parts of the body that are composed mostly of water, such as blood, urine and muscle, than it does through bone, fat or air. It is also possible to predict how much body fat a person has by combining the BI results with other factors such as height, weight, gender, fitness level and age.

Preferred Method:
This method is portable, easily accessible, simple to perform and can be done at home with the required equipment.

Body Impedance Analysis - Michelle Dapito

Why is this method my favourite?

It is very cheap and easy to find compared to other methods as this feature is common in many of today's at-home digital scales. Weight is calculated automatically along with body fat content in less than a minute. Also, no special training or skill is required for this method.

Bioelectrial Impedance Analysis (BIA) - Stacey

How it works: 
BIA measures the impedance or resistance to the signal as it travels through the water that is found in muscle and fat. The more muscle a person has, the more water their body can hold. The greater the amount of water in a person's body, the easier it is for the current to pass through it. The more fat, the more resistance to the current.

- Easy to use
- Portable 
- Relatively low cost 

- Less accurate than those used clinically or in nutritional and medical practice
- Tend to under-read body fat percentage

Why is it my preferred method?
It is not very costly and very accessible. It provides a quick and much less invasive choice of assessing body composition as the subject is only required to expose only the back of the wrist and the hand and foot to get results. Compared to the hydrostatic underwater weighing method which is gold standard test, this test is much more accessible and cheaper as the hydrostatic underwater weighing method is rare and are mostly available to athletes and for scientific research.

Monday, 25 June 2012

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) - Lee YuChong (S3-08)

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

It is an enhanced version of the x-ray, and is considered one of the best ways to measure body composition. It is a multi purpose machine that can also be used to check for bone density, which may lead to health risks.

Skin fold Measurements - Roy Chua (S3-08)

Measuring skin folds is a method of estimating body fat that requires the use of a trained pincher, a skin fold caliper, a measuring tape as well as marker. Measuring skin folds only require a select few parts of the body, namely the triceps, pectoral, subscapula, midaxilla, abdomen, suprailiac and the quadriceps.

This is done by having the pincher only pinch the skin and fat of these areas without holding onto any muscle. The measuring tape and marker are used in this process to help locate the area to pinch, some places even requiring to pinch at certain angles. Afterwards the skin fold caliper is used to measure the thickness of the skin fold in millimetres. The thickness is then measured a few more times and then averaged to be accurate. These values would then be used in a formula, which varies depending on the person, to measure the percent of fat in the body.

This is an example of measuring skin folds:


Tuesday, 19 June 2012

reminder to post the method/ machine of your preference for body composition and why

Thank you for the FEW who have posted your preferred method/ machine of body composition. for the REST, please do post your preference before Term 3 starts again. Enjoy the rest your holidays. Thank you.

Friday, 15 June 2012

Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Arthur Lee S308

So sorry for the late post.

Video :

The video explains the procedure of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in detail.
It is a radiology medical imaging technique that is pain free and non invasive. It's detailed body images that can be from any plane allows for visualization of the structure and function of the body. This in turn allows accurate measurements of body tissue composition. The whole procedure uses an MRI scanner for the images

Advantages: Non intrusive and painless

Disadvantages: Limited use as the equipment and the analysis is expensive

Source :

Tuesday, 22 May 2012

Air displacement (Bodpod) - Kang Yan S3-06


From 00.40 to 2.22 sec of the video, it explains on how the bodpod works and the steps taken before someone enters the machine.

If the air displacement test is performed correctly according to the recommended guidelines, there is a ± 3% error.

Factors affecting the results obtained from air displacement method include:
- Hydration status and increases in muscle temperature, as it can adversely affect calculation results
- Movement and activity in the bodpod (It is imperative to breath normal, remain still, and keep hands in lap while being assessed by the Bod Pod. Any slight movement or change in breathing pattern may affect results.)

Advantages of air displacement (bodpod) method:
- Does not require anyone to get wet
- System is easy to operate
- Measurement time is short
- Well suited for special populations, which includes children, obese, elderly, and disabled people

Disadvantages of air displacement (bodpod) method:
- Very expensive (The machine used cost about $30,000 - $40,000)
- Only a few facilities have the Bod Pod, since it is expensive


Monday, 21 May 2012

Body Composition (Niklaus Teo)

Here, i got a neat 5 minute video explaining how the use of hydrostatic weighting is used to measure the body composition. The huge advantages of this method that includes short testing time and incredible accuracy makes it the gold standards of testing body composition.

Sunday, 20 May 2012

Bioelectrical Impedance - Preston

This video pretty much explains everything about bioelectrical impedance.

Bioelectrical Impedance (Youtube)

Basically it measures the electrical impedance, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues which could be then used to calculate an estimate of total body water. Total body water can be used to measure fat-free body mass and, by difference with body weight, body fat. (Wikipedia)

I feel this is a good way of measuring body composition as it is non-invasive and is quite accurate. It can give you a variety of information that you or your doctor needs to know. However you need to adhere to certain requirements before you can test your body composition with the bioelectrical impedance.


Saturday, 19 May 2012

Methods to Measure Body Composition (Hao Ming)

6 Methods to Measure Body Composition: Skinfold Measurements, Underwater Weighing, Bioelectrical Impedence, Bod Pod (Air Displacement), Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000. Firstly, for Skinfold Measurements, there may be 2 types of it:

Skinfold Measurements involves assessing of percent body fat. It is quite accurate, with +/- 3% error:

Equipment: Skinfold Caliper, Designed for Simple Accurate Measurement of Subcutaneous Tissue.

7 Site Skinfold: Involves Chest, Triceps, Subscapular, Axilla, Suprailiac, Abdomen & Thigh (people).

3 Site Skinfold: Involves Chest, Abdomen and Thigh of Men, Triceps, Suprailiac & Thigh of Women.

To Find out more about its advantages and disadvantages, refer to the link to the site at the end of post.

Underwater Weighing involves methods from the principle which states that when a body is submerged underwater, there will be buoyant counter force equal to weight which is displaced (using weighing).

This is more accurate because if the guidelines are being carried out properly, it will have +/- 1.5% error.

Advantage: This method is considered the "gold standard" in percent body fat measurement. Repeat measures also mostly prove consistent, and can be used to chart progress. Hence, it is rather reliable.

 Disadvantages: Requires a lot of equipment and space, testing is time consuming and involved as well.

Bioelectrical Impedence involves electricity, where people will stand barefoot on metal foot plates and a low voltage electric current is sent up 1 leg and down the other. Percent body fat will be measured then.

Likewise, for this case, when guidelines are carried out correctly, there is a possibility of +/- 3% error.

Advantage: Requires little or no technical knowledge of operator, testing itself takes less than 1 minute.

Disadvantages: Method has a higher standard error range than most people desire (might have errors).

Bod Pod involves state of art technology, and it correlates nicely with the concept of hydrostatic weighing (underwater weighing), but instead of using water, it uses air displacement to measure then.

Bod Pod process, when carried out correctly, will have a possibility of a +/- 3% error (recommended).

Advantages: Does not require getting wet, it is not difficult to operate and measurement time is short.

Disadvantages: Very expensive ($30000 - $40000), and only a few facilities have the Bod Pod process.

Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) involves the use of technology: 2 X-Ray Energies Used.

DEXA is considered to be more accurate and valid as it takes bone mineral content into consideration.

Advantages: Radiation exposure is low, DEXA is quick and one does not have to wear a bathing suit.

Disadvantages: DEXA is a costly machine and can cost as much as $300.

Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000 measures body fat by light absorption, reflectance too.

This method is not the most accurate in measuring body fat through research and experiments.

Advantages: It is safe, it is non-invasive, it is fast and it is convenient as it only requires light properties.

Disadvantages: It is not one of the most accurate method in assessing body fat composition.

My preferred method above: DEXA, as it is the most accurate and it is fast, although it may be costly.

Link to Website:

Monday, 5 March 2012


When Aaron's team has the disc, Aaron is able to defend the key players from getting to the ball. However, sometimes Aaron does not keep track of the person he is marking, resulting in the opponent being able to make a quick counter when they get possession of the disc.

Player Review (Roy) [by Aaron]

Roy is a good catcher and support player: 
 - Receives the frisbees amazingly well
 - Run's into space
 - Peers are WELL aware of him.
 - Throwing needs to be better
 - Need to run a little bit faster.

Player Review (Idris) [by Aaron]

Idris is a good SUPPORT player in the game 
- He runs ALOT in the game and therefore easily tire out within minutes of the game.
- Mostly free.
- Needs to work alot on catching, 
- Even though running alot is good, it tires him easily.


Yuchong is very active when his team has the disc, being quick to get to open spaces. This allows him to get more opportunities to receive the disc. Furthermore Yuchong is able to receive the disc well, allowing him to keep the disc in his team's possession. When being the handler, Yuchong is also able to make quick decisions on who to pass to, allowing him to get the disc to his teammates' general direction easily. However when throwing the disc, Yuchong would sometimes throw the disc a little too far for teammates to receive it well.

Su En

+ points: Relatively good catching, attempts to run into space

- points: Passing is not really so good, doesnt get the disc most of the time

Sunday, 4 March 2012


From the video, we can see that in the first-half, Jake has been interchanging between defence and offence frequently. He is quite hesitant to call for the frisbee so his teammates could not locate him easily. By the second half, Jake has started calling for the frisbee. Evident from the video, Jake had an opportunity of a fast break when he called for the frisbee. The team dynamics also improved after more effective communication. 

Stacey Yip

Stacey has strong passes and accurate catches . She also makes an effort to run into space and also follows the ultimate closely . Many a times , she manages to catch 'stray' ultimates that have gone off their intended paths and This helped the team greatly . However , Stacey should try to call out more so as to let her teammates know that she is open , which she is most of the time . Stacey could also try defending .

Observed by Emily Wu


Azeem can improve by being more active in the game, i.e., move about more, spend more energy defending and marking someone, and also, Azeem needs to run out into open spaces much more often, and attract attention in order to get the frisbee.


Overall, Aaron is good at running into free space for his teammates to pass the disc, but he does not call out to them to attract attention. Therefore his teammates are unaware of his position, and does not pass the disc to him. Aaron needs to defend the handler more often instead of running away from him.

Roy Chua

Overall, Roy plays quite well, running to the frisbee when the opponent has it, and does his best to gain possession of it by blocking it in its flight path. He does well in attack by constantly supporting his team, however, does not constantly run into open spaces enough. Roy should also use his backhand pass more often instead of his forehand pass.

Sher Li

Sher Li is a good defensive player and she constantly tries to block and intercept the opponents' disc. She also runs into empty space to receive the disc. However, she does not gain possession of the disc often and can improve by calling out louder to her teammates to pass the disc to her.

Gwendolyn Chee

Gwendolyn was not very active in the game, but this is probably due to the fact that she had just recovered after sustaining an injury to her knee.

Player Review- Michelle

Michelle can catch well but has little accuracy in her passes. She needs to stay calm and look at the person she is passing to before passing. She moves forward when her team has possession. She supports her team well. She tries to move into open space but does not call for the disk often. She has to remember to mark her player and count the 5 seconds for the player she is marking.

Observed By: Stacey Yip

Player Review- Emily

She runs into space but does not call for the disk. She is more of a passive player and needs to run about and call for the disk more often. She tries her best to mark her player but occasionally forgets her player's whereabouts. She makes an effort to support her team. 

Observed By: Stacey Yip

Casandra Ong

February 29, 2012.

Casandra always runs into space. Casandra always makes sure she defends someone from the other team to prevent them from possessing the frisbee. However, her team members do not often pass the frisbee to her which I feel is a waste. She also has good sportsmanship and accepts the results of the game. Casandra has to improve on her catching skills and sometimes it is a very good opportunity for her to catch the frisbee, however, she does not catch it. However, it is still fairly fine. Casandra's passing is also relatively alright however there is still room for improvement.

Casandra was evaluated by Michelle Dapito.

Karan by Shakti

Karan is generally a very all rounded player. He has very good hand eye coordination which allows him to catch passes from every angle and sometimes even catch bad passes from other teammates. He can also coordinate well with his team which allows him to do rapid passes and catches which lead to quick goals. For example Karan and Ronak have a very good connection which allowed them to do a zig zag pass, which led them to one point. Also, Karan can pass very well so the frisbee always goes to the person he wants it to go too. Sorry but there is an error with the video uploading so I will upload the videos when I find out why the stupid thing is not working :)

Cherin Tan

I couldn't get hold of any videos cause I deleted mine thinking that we don't need to use it so... Sorry Ms Choo and Cherin!

But overall, Cherin did pretty well. She did exceptionally well in one of the games where she assisted/caught 2 of the goals, leading the team to victory. Other games she didn't do as well, but was consistently trying to run into free space. However, her team members did not pass as much to her even when she wasn't being blocked. She also makes an attempt to defend the person closest to her when they switch from attacking to defending.

Kang Yan

Kang Yan moves into space very quickly and can make quite impressive passes. She tends to appear wherever there is an opportunity to score. However, she needs to catch the attention of her team players, by calling out for the disk and to her teammates.

Peer Evaluation: Michelle Dapito. By Casandra Ong

Michelle is a great team player. Even though she does not gain possession of the disc in most parts of the game, she still plays a her and moving into space, trying her best to provide the handler options to keep the disc in her team's possession. Michelle was able to move into space and to interpret the direction of the game, as she is constantly moving into the relevant positions to provide her team with support and defense. Michelle shows good sportsmanship in the game, as she is calm and always ready to accept the fair observations of the team players.

Luas Chia

Analysis by Rayner:

Lucas demonstrated great sportsmanship and constantly encourages his teammates. He strives to give his 100% at all times. He does not wastes opportunities and you can see him running to get the frisbee and pass it to others/score as fast as possible. He has good judgement and is able to catch and pass the frisbee effectively. Besides being very good offensively, the same can be said about his defense. He was able to make a successful blocks throughout the game.

Yu Chong

Yu Chong is confident in everything he does. Whenever the opponent has the disc, he will either try to block him or mark another person on the opposing team. Supports the team well, and is good at both defense and offense. A good attribute he has is when he is defending a person who has the disc, he will shout out loud the seconds the opponent has left. This will cause the opponent to feel stressed and may result in a failed pass/throw. An excellent player who has put in a lot of effort for the team.



Alpha is a great defensive player. He is always supporting his team well and does good intercepts. He has to beware of his passes/throws though, as some of his passes do not end up in the correct place. When he has the disc, he will look around and think who he can pass the disc to. But he must also be cautious as to not exceed the time limit when holding the disc. Overall, a good defensive player to have on a team.



Unfortunately, I did not take any videos for Karan specifically. However, during the second time when I was taking videos for Adam, he was playing against Karan so please understand.

Karan was quite active during the game. He is capable of great passes due to how he has really good throwing technique, which allow him to throw far and accurately. He worked really well with his teammates, helping out in attacking and defending. However, in this game he seems to have an uncanny trait to go unnoticed. Everyone watching knew that Karan tends to appear out of nowhere to intercept passes and receive them. From previous games as well as this one, Karan has limited stamina which is why he can be seen walking but at least at the right times.

Overall, Karan is a great frisbee player, he is very good at passing and working well with his teammates, he needs to work on sustaining his energy well for the whole game.

Observed by: Arthur Lee

Saturday, 3 March 2012


Adam can be seen in the video playing against team 4. He can be seen walking sometimes but that is usually when the frisbee is going to change possession. However, he played a good defense, helping to intercept the frisbee at times but tends to be a bit slow in blocking sometimes. When he was able to intercept the frisbee, he made good, short and accurate passes to his teammates. Overall, he very active in the game and thus is a dynamic player.

Observed by: Arthur Lee

Friday, 2 March 2012


Preston see a potential frisbee hit. 
Preston ran back to defense to stop the Frisbee
He jumps to stop an incoming pass
One last attempt to save the frisbee was futile as other team scored and the opponent team celebrated
Preston won't give up and starts to shout his name to let his teammates know

Preston tries to run into space to get the frisbee

Still running

Preston demonstrated great enthusiasm in playing the game. He ran for literally the whole game. With right direction and better catching, he is bound to have a better game.

KJ Shakti

Shakti, initially just standing back, waiting for the ball to come

He stood there and waited and waited
He thought, this ain't right. I gotta get my head in the game. And he did

Shakti developed a sense of enthusiasm especially during the second half, where he helped out in the attacking more often with great results

Tuesday, 28 February 2012


Please try to post your videos here and please name it in this format


thank you!

Ms Choo