Monday, 16 July 2012

My Preferred Body Com

My most preferred body composition method is the 'Bod Pod' method(air displacement). Even though it costs a lot of money, it is relatively easy and less complicated to use such as the "skinfolding" method. It is also very accurate. My last reason is that it can also calculate the body composition of specific age groups such as children and the elderly.

Body Composition Method Karan

I prefer using skinfold measurements because,

Skinfold measurements are widely utilized to assess body composition. It is a lot simpler than hydrostatic weighing and many of the other body composition techniques. After the original outlay for calipers, the daily tests costs are minimal.
Other considerations: some subjects may feel uncomfortable stripping down in front of the tester, therefore every effect should be made to make them feel comfortable. For legal reasons, it is wise to have another person present, and to have females testers for female subjects. The right side measurement is standard, though in some situations you may need to test someone on the left side. If so, you must record this and endeavor to always test on the same side for that person. Reasons for testing on the left side may include injuries, amputation, deformities, or other medical conditions.

Saturday, 14 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Method - Nur Nadiah

My most preferred body composition method is the 'Bod Pod' (air displacement). Although it is rather costly, it is the least troublesome and the most comfortable method as compared to the other methods such as 'skinfolding'. Furthermore, it is relatively accurate and very time-conserving. It is also well-suited for special populations such as the elderly and children. Hence, my most preferred method is the 'Bod Pod'.

Friday, 13 July 2012

Body Composition Method (Ronak)

I prefer the skin fold method to measure the body composition. It might not be as accurate and reliable as other measurement but it still has a region of error or reliability that can be ignored and still get a good measurement. For example, more accurate would give reading up to 5-6 decimal place but for normal people that accurate reading is not required. Plus, it is relatively cheap and can be done at home which is good for people who want to keep track of their body composition regularly so they do not have to go anywhere. Also, the tools necessary are only a measurement tape and a skin fold caliper which are also cheap and easily and readily available. Skin fold is a good and reliable technique

Body composition method [Gwendolyn]

My favorite method is the skin fold method. Though it is not as accurate as the other methods, it is cheap and can be easily done at home, and because of this it is best for people who wants to monitor their body composition regularly. The equipments needed are only a tape measure and a skin fold caliper, both of which is rather cheap and easy to get.

submission of elearning and Body composition homework

for those who have not been listening in class.

Please submit your work via email - if you have not been granted author rights by your class SW reps. in addition, the submit folder for elearning week is closed AFTER the elearning week in Term 2. So, please do not submit your work there. Please email me instead.

Thank you

Thursday, 12 July 2012

Favourite body composition test method [JingYi]

My preferred body composition test method would be the bod pod, as it is not only comfortable, but also accurate. It has an error range of 1-2%, which is around the same as the hydrostatic weighing. Even though this method might be rather expensive, it is the most comfortable and accurate method, thus I think it is worth its price.

Preferred body composition test method - Jun Hong

Favourite method to measure accurate body composition: Hydrostatic Weighing

It is the most accurate compared to Bod Pod, Skinfold measurements, Bioelectrical Impedence Analysis and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. It has a specific and accurate formula to calculate the amount of fats in our body, even though it can be quite uncomfortable. Other methods of measuring body composition are less reliable. The only factor that can directly affect the measurement is the amount of air in the lungs, which can be calculated.

Preferred body composition technique [Aaron]

My preferred choice of finding the ody composition technique would be MRI [Magnetic resonance imaging]. It's relatively straightforward and simplistic. You wouldn't need to bother much about what to do when and how. It don't have requirements that require your body to be in a certain fitness level.

Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Technique-Jaime Pang (306)

My preferred body composition test would be the skin fold test. Even though it is not as accurate as the other methods, it can be used to identify changes in body composition over time. Since this test only requires a skin fold calipers and a tape measure, the materials can be reused over and over again without a need to pay money every single time. This will benefit people who want to observe their body composition regularly.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method - Tan Jian Hui S3-02

My preferred choice of testing body composition would be Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This technique provides users with detailed information of where their body fats are distributed. It is non-invasive and painless, as the procedure for the test only requires the user to lie down and let the magnet and computer scan. Some people may think it is dangerous because of the scanning, however, this technique does not utilise ionising radiation that are used in X-rays, hence they are considered safe.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method - Norul

My preferred body composition test method is the whole-body air-displacement plethysmography, in which they measure body composition using an equipment called the 'BodPod'. This is because it has a high level of accuracy, with a general error range of 1-2% which is the same as hydrostatic weighing. However, compared to hydrostatic weighing, the BodPod does not require getting wet and this gives it an advantage of ease of use as well as faster testing time. With that said, the BodPod unit is very expensive ($30,000 - $40,000) and only few facilities have it. Some institutions offer tests for a fee.

Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Preferred Body composition technique -Yeo Jun Jie(s3-06)

My preferred body composition technique would be the Girth, Or Circumference measures.
Girths are circumference measures at standard anatomical sites around the body, measured with a tape measure. Girth measurements can be used in determining body size and composition, and to monitor changes in these parameters.

I chose this as this technique is relatively cheap, and it is very convenient to perform at home, which allows for proper tracking of the body. In addition, when performed with the skinfold measurments, a clearer picture of changes in muscle and fat compositions and distribution can be seen.

Monday, 9 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Clarabelle s306

Bod Pod
The Bod Pod is a new tool that relies on air displacement to determine body fat, says Bryant. There's no submersion; you don't get wet. But you have to get into the Bod Pod chamber, be very still, control your breath; all factors that can affect the results. Your hydration level before the test can also affect results. 
Price: $40 to $65 per test.
It's much easier and more convenient than underwater weighing and it is about as accurate and reliable as DEXA, and is much cheaper plus it is becoming more widely available. Though it may still need some refinement.

Sunday, 8 July 2012

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Heo Yub S3-02

My preferred body composition test method is the MRI scan as it is painless and non-invasive for the user. This method estimates body fat percentage and determines the body composition through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), allowing for accurate analysis of body composition. Most importantly, this method of testing is not uncomfortable and does not require the user to hold their breath, which is needed for hydrostatic testing. However, this method is expensive.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — ZhiYongS3-02

My preferred choice of body composition testing wold be the hydrostatic underwater weighing method. It seems fun to me, but more importantly, it is also the most accurate compared to the rest of the methods.

Preferred Body composition test method - Catherine S3-02

My preferred body composition test method is the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as it is the simplest yet one of the most accurate method. This method estimates body fat percentage and determines the body composition and bone mineral density through X-rays scans of the body. The individual taking the test would have to lie under the X-ray machine and wait for the results. However, this method is expensive.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Tim Yap S3-02

Preferred Body Composition Test Method: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

What is it?

"Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), also called Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is a noninvasive, painless medical imaging technique used commonly in radiology. MRI provides detailed images of the body in any plane, and is used to visualize the structure and function of the body for the diagnosis and treatment of human conditions. Due to the detailed images that can be provided using this technique, it is possible to get accurate measurements of the composition of body tissue."

Why is it preferred?

Of all the composition test methods, this is the most accurate and the least strenuous on the person undergoing the test (unlike skin fold measurement, hydrostatic weighing, etc.) This technique does not use ionizing radiation (unlike CT scans, x-rays), so it is very safe and not harmful to the body. The only drawback is the high cost, but this is weighed out by the many advantages of this test method.

Preferred Body composition test method - Celine

My preferred choice for body composition test method is the skin fold measurement method, as it is quick and simple to perform, only needing a trained pincher, a caliper, a measuring tape and marker. Also, there is a fixed formula for finding out the percentage of fat in the body, so it is fairly accurate.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Jake Wee 302)

My preferred choice of body fat composition testing is the Classic Hydrostatic testing as it is the most accurate way of testing for the body fat composition. Though it is uncomfortable and expensive, it has the most accurate readings as compared to other methods.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method — Fatin S3-02

My preferred body composition test method would be the Bioelectrical impedance analysis because it is easy to use and cheap. On top of that, it is also more comfortable as compared to the underwater weighing although it is not as accurate.

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Rayner Tan 302)

My favourite method of weight control is the vacuum therapy as it is
relatively comfortable compared to the water method. It’s also
interesting as it uses science on the cellular level, and it’s based
off from an old chinese method called “cupping”

Preferred Body Composition Test Method (Calvin Heng 302)

My preferred method of the body composition test would be Bioelectrial Impedance Analysis. This method is more cost-efficient and will derive decent results. It works by transferring an electrical current through the patient's hand and foot. Muscular Bodies with a greater water composition would have less resistance to the current whereas bodies with more fat would have a greater resistance to the current.

Saturday, 7 July 2012

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement - Hong Kai Xuan (15) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring my body fat composition is by underwater weighing.

Underwater Weighing involves methods from the principle which states that when a body is submerged underwater, there will be buoyant counter force equal to weight which is displaced. It uses Archimedes principle of displacement. The higher the percentage of fat, the less displacement of water.

This is more accurate because if the guidelines are being carried out properly, it will have +/- 1.5% error. This method is considered the "gold standard" in percent body fat measurement. Repeat measures also mostly prove consistent, and can be used to chart progress. Hence, it is rather reliable.
However, it requires a lot of equipment and space, testing is time consuming and involved as well.

Friday, 6 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test - Teoh Yun (09) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring body fats is using body weight. It is easy for lazy people like me who finds it troublesome to go through all the unfamiliar methods, using a normal scale, this method can be used almost everywhere, and to improve reliability, weigh routinely in the mornings. It is also a very cheap and fast method.

Preferred method of body composition test - Teo Yi Lin (08) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring body fats is using the Bioelectric Impedance Analysis, also known as BIA.

The BIA scale estimates both fat-free body and body fat percentage at the same time using the strength of impedance along with the height and weight metrics based on the different water content and conductivity of fats and muscle.

Even though it is not as accurate as compared to hydrostatic weighing, it is comparatively cheaper and also easier to administer. This is also another cheaper method other than the skin fold caliper method.

Preferred method of body composition test — Benz Kew (10) S3-06

My preferred method would be the DXA Scan (Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry)

Advantages: It is the most accurate with minimal precision error
Disadvantages: It is expensive, less accurate for obese people and needs a doctor's prescription before running the scan.

Thursday, 5 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test — Idris(20) S3-08

My Preferred method is measuring my body fat composition is by Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) Futrex 5000. This method is based on the principles of light absorbtion , reflectance, and near infrared spectroscopy.

It has an accuracy of ±4% is fairly inexpensive at about twenty to forty dollars.

- Safe
- Non-invasive
- Fast
- Convenient.

- Not one the most accurate technique

Wednesday, 4 July 2012

Preferred method of body composition test—Lim Zhi Qi(03) S3-06

My preferred method of body composition test is the hydrostatic underwater weighing. I chose this because this is one the most accurate tests. However, this is very expensive and hard to access too. It also has blindspots like overestimating the body fat of an elderly having osteoporosis and underestimating of an athlete who has denser bones and muscles than non-athletes.

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement- Ng Kok Yin (04) S3-06

My preferred method of measuring my body fat composition will be Hydrostatic Weighing. Hydrostatic weighing, is the body fat measurement that requires being submerged in a specialized tank of water and measured with the mass per unit volume of a patient's body.

The procedure is based on Archimedes' principle, using the following three measurable values:
-The weight of the body outside the water
-The weight of the completely immersed body (a weight that may be negative if the body in question is less dense than water)
-The density of the water

If each test is performed correctly according to the recommended guidelines, there is a +/- 1.5% error. (Note: Accuracy depends on the client's ability to blow all the air out of their lungs both during a pre-test screening with a spirometer, and during the test itself. Since air makes the body float, inability to perform either of these maneuvers will result in miscalculation of the percent body fat.)

This method is currently considered the "gold standard" in percent body fat measurement
Repeat measures usually prove consistent, and can be used to chart progress

This method usually requires a lot of equipment and space
Testing is time consuming and involved
Requires in-depth knowledge to administer the tests and compute the calculations
Being submerged under water may be difficult and produce anxiety for some

Preferred Method of Body Fat Composition Measurement- Sean Phua Aik Han (19) S3-06

The preferred method of calculating body fat composition in my opinion is hydrostatic weighing. It's aim is to derive the body fat composition from the density of the body in water. Equipment such as a hydrostatic stainless steel weighing tank, which requires a special underwater mounted chair and scale.

The person's weight out of water must be recorded, and then with minimal clothing on, sits on the seat in the weighing tank and expels all the air out of their lungs. The person is then completely submerged into the water tank and the underwater weight is recorded. This test must be re-conducted several times in order to determine the accuracy of the result.

Even though this test might be accurate for most people, there are still some disadvantages. One reason for this is that athletes tend to have denser bones and muscles compared to non-athletes. Adding on, the equipment needed for hydrostatic weighing is costly, and the tanks are usually located in universities or research institutions. Thus, making it hard to access for the general public.

Body Fat Composition Measurement – Oh Sher Li (S3-06)

My preferred method of measuring body fat composition is Hydrostatic Weighing. Hydrostatic weighing, or underwater weighing, is considered the "Gold Standard" of body fat measurement that requires being submerged in a specialized tank of water. 

It works mainly because bone and muscle are more dense than water, so a person with less fat will weigh more in the water and vice versa. The accuracy of the reading is contingent upon blowing all the air out of the lungs during pretest screening. The test takes about 20-30 minutes, costs around $100-$150, and is available at research labs, universities, or hospitals.

The advantage of this method is its accuracy, however it can be impractical, expensive, and difficult to repeat. This method produces a very accurate result, hence it is a lot more reliable than many other methods, if the user wishes to have a very clear idea of his/her body fat composition.

screen shots of students who have submitted e-learning week task

for students who have not submitted
1. e-learning week task (FITT) and/or
2. Body composition preference on the blog (term 2, last week)

please do so before this Friday - 6 Jul 2012.

You will be issued yellow forms to attend SS if you fail to finish!

Monday, 2 July 2012

Preferred Body composition measuring method [ Emily S3-08 ]

My preferred choice for measuring body composition is Underwater weighing or Hydrostatic Weighing . I chose this as it is the most accurate among all the methods and is relatively cheap .

Hydrostatic Weighing is based upon the Archimedes principle which states that when a body is submerged in water , there is a buoyant counter force equal to the weight of the water which is displaced .  As bones and muscles are more dense than water, a person with a lower percentage of fat will weigh more in the water and have a lower percent body fat. Conversely, fat floats. Therefore, a large amount of fat mass will make the body lighter in the water and have a higher percent body fat.

With Hydrostatic Weighing , there is only a chance of +/- 1.5% error . However , it depends on the client's ability to blow all air out of their lungs during the pretest and the actual test . This is important as having air in the body will enable the body to float but this test is trying find out how much the body floats due to the body fat and not the air inside the body . 

Hydrostatic Weighing produces fairly accurate results and thus can be used to chart progress .

Hydrostatic Weighing requires a lot of equipment as well as space . The test itself is time consuming and involved . Also , in-depth knowledge is required to administer the tests as well as to compute the calculations . Lastly , being submerged under water may prove to be difficult for some . 

Hydrostatic weighing will cost anywhere from $10-$75 due to the involved nature of the test.

Places to go
Available at research institutions and colleges or universities
Discounted pricing is usually available for students.

Source :

Body Composition - Koh Su En (04)

The method of measuring body composition that I have measured is by using Skinfold Measurements.


  • Easy to use
  • No need a lot of time
  • Cheap
  • Noninvasive
  • Widely available
  • Technical sources of error
  • Measure fats under the skin
  • Not the best for the obese and lean

Why is it my preferred choice?
It is relatively cheap and widely available. It is also more accurate than the Near Infrared Interactance (NIR).

With reference to:

Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing

Hydrostatic weighing, also known as Hydrodensitometry or underwater weighing, is a classic measure of body composition. Its the best way to measure body fat percentage as well

Equipment needed:
Hydrostatic stainless steel weighing tank, including underwater mounted chair and scale, weighted belt and nose clip. A more simple set up may include a chair and scale suspended from a diving board over a pool or hot tub.

The dry weight of the subject is first determined. The subject, in minimal clothing, then sits on a specialized seat, expels all the air from their lungs, and is lowered into the tank until all body parts are emerged. The person must remain motionless underwater while the underwater weight is recorded. This procedure is repeated several times to get a dependable underwater weight measure. 

How to measure:
Body density = Wa / (((Wa - Ww) / Dw) - (RV + 100cc)), where Wa = body weight in air (kg), Ww = body weight in water (kg), Dw = density of water, RV = residual lung volume, and 100cc is the correction for air trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. The body density (D) can be converted to percent bodyfat (%BF) using the Siri equation. For more accuracy residual lung volume (RV) should be physically measured, though there are calculations for RV estimation. One estimation of residual volume is one third of forced vital capacity (FVC)

Underwater weighing is the most widely used test of body density and in the past was the criterion measure for other indirect measures.

The equipment required to do underwater weighing is expensive. The tanks are mostly located at university or other research institutions, and there is generally not easy access for the general population.

Skinfold Measurements

Making accurate skinfold measurements is more than simply pinching the skin somewhere around a particular area and measuring the thickness. There are precise sites on which the measurements are to be taken. A well-trained technician can obtain accurate results, unlike most others who aren't trained and experienced to take accurate enough results. To take a skin-fold measurement, first determine the correct measurement site. Grab the skin with the thumb and forefinger about 0.5 inch from the measurement site following the natural fold of the skin. Lift the skin up from the muscle, apply the calipers and wait for 4 seconds before reading the calipers (Fat is compressible, so reading the scale before or after the 4-sec delay may affect the results) Readings are usually taken from: Triceps (Midpoint between top of shoulder and bottom of elbow) Chest (Midpoint between armpit and nipple) Abdominal (1inch left and 0.5inch down of belly button) Supriliac (Top of hipbone, in line with belly button) Thigh (Midpoint between knee and hip) Formulas to calculate: Females: Body Density = 1.0994921 - 0.0009929*sum + 0.0000023*sum^2 - 0.0001392*age (triceps, suprailiac, thigh skinfold measurements) Males: Body Density = 1.1093800 - 0.0008267*sum + 0.0000016*sum^2 - 0.0002574*age (chest, abdominal, thigh skinfold measurements) Using those measurements, we can estimate our body fats using two formulas: Siri Percent Fat = [(495 / Body Density) -450] * 100 Brozek Percent Fat = [(4.570 / Body Density) - 4.142] * 100 These are not accurate though, as it assumes that the density of fat-free mass to remain constant. So the actual fat percentage is slightly higher then the measured percentage in the lean, muscular type and vice versa for the obese type. Although we need training and experience, it isn’t very difficult to calculate and estimate our body fat. This also doesn’t require many equipment, except for the special skinfold measuring calipers. As long as we have those, we are able to roughly calculate our body fat anywhere and everywhere. It’s doesn’t cost a lot either. Source: Darius Low, S308

Methods of measuring body composition - Shamus

The method of measuring body composition that I prefer is Near Infrared Interactance (NIR).

This method of assessing body fat is based on the principles of light absorbtion, reflectance, and near infrared spectroscopy. To estimate body composition, a computerized spectrophotometer that has a scan and probe are used. The probe is placed onto a selected body site such as the biceps; it emitts an infrared light which passes through both fat and muscle and is reflected back to the probe. Subject data such as height, weight, sex, age, frame size and activity level are taken into consideration. Density measurements are obtained and incorporated into the manufacturer's prediction equations. A digital read out including percentage body fat and lean tissue are displayed.

This method is not the most accurate, but it is cost efficient and convenient. Futrex 5000 (an example of NIR) underestimated body fat by more than 4% in subjects greater than 30% fat and overestimated body fat by 4% in subjects less than 8% fat. 

Its advantages include safe, non-invasive, fast, and convenient. It is inexpensive, and only costs anywhere from 20 to 40 dollars. It is available at health clubs, weight loss centers, and medical practices offering weight loss programs. 

Source :

Sunday, 1 July 2012

Calculating Body Fat composition -Cherin (3-08)

Method: Measuring Skinfolds

It estimates the percentage of body fat by measuring skinfold thickness at specific locations on the body.  
They are generally taken at specific parts of the right side of the body.  It is done by pinching the skin at a particular area and pulling the fold  away from the underlying muscle so only the skin and fat tissue is being held. Special skinfold calipers are then used to measure the skinfold thickness in millimeters. It is taken twice and then averaged.

These are the main areas that are measured:
-Subscapula (Beneath the edge of the shoulder blade)
-Midaxilla (Midline of the side of the torso)
-Suprailiac (Just above the iliac crest of the hip bone)

There are many formulas used to calculate body fat, below is one of the simplest:

For Females:

Body Density = 1.0994921 - (0.0009929 x sum) + (0.0000023 x sum) - (0.0001392 x age)
"sum" refers to the sum of triceps, suprailiac and thigh skinfold measurements.

For Males:

Body Density = 1.1093800 - (0.0008267 x sum) +( 0.0000016 x sum ) -( 0.0002574 x age)
"sum" refers to the sum of pectoral, abdominal and thigh skinfold measurements.